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Plank Pose In Yoga: Benefits, Technique, and Variations

plank pose in yoga

In this article: Discover more about plank pose in yoga and its benefits!

This article was reviewed by a certified yoga teacher.

Plank Pose, or Kumbhakasana, is more than just another yoga posture—it’s a pose that honors the power of balance, strength, and endurance.

Steeped in ancient yogic practices, this seemingly simple pose has transcended the confines of yoga studios to find its place in different workouts worldwide.

For dedicated yoga practitioners, plank pose is not merely a physical challenge but an embodiment of discipline and concentration.

As you align the body, from the crown of the head to the heels, there’s an intrinsic unity experienced—a merging of the mind, body, and breath.

Beyond the evident core engagement, plank pose delves deep into stabilizing our internal energies, teaching us to find stillness in exertion.

Whether you’re an aspiring yogi or a seasoned practitioner, understanding the nuances of plank pose can significantly elevate your practice.

Read on to discover the plank not just as a pose, but as a transformative tool in your yogic arsenal.

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Proper Technique for Plank Pose

Achieving the multifaceted benefits of plank pose is rooted in proper technique. Execution with precision not only amplifies its effectiveness but also minimizes the risk of injury. Here is how to master Kumbhakasana:

Begin in a tabletop position. Place your hands directly beneath your shoulders, spreading the fingers wide.

This helps in distributing your body weight evenly across the palms, reducing stress on the wrists. Throughout the pose, make sure you continue to push the floor away. 

Extend your legs back, tucking your toes under. Ensure your feet are hip-width apart, and your heels are pushing backward.

This will create an elongated, active line of energy throughout your body.

Throughout the pose, continue to lift the front thighs to your back thighs, and back thighs to the ceiling. Keep pressing back through your heels.

“Lock” the abdomen by drawing your belly button towards your spine. This action engages the transverse abdominis, ensuring your core is active and supportive throughout the pose.

Maintain a neutral spine. Your back should be flat, like a tabletop. Avoid any sagging or arching. Imagine a line extending from the crown of your head to your heels.

Your gaze should be directed slightly ahead, about 6 inches in front of your hands. This helps in maintaining a neutral neck alignment, which is crucial for spinal health.

Ensure that your neck is an extension of your spine. Avoid tilting your head up or letting it drop down. This common mistake can lead to unnecessary strain.

For beginners, aim to hold the plank for 15-30 seconds, gradually increasing the duration as strength and endurance improve.

Advanced practitioners can aim for durations exceeding a minute or even multiple minutes.

As with any yoga pose, breath is the lifeline of plank pose. Maintain steady, rhythmic inhales and exhales through your nose.

Some yogis find plank boring and do not truly appreciate its appeal. But, the allure of plank pose lies in its simplicity.

Whether you’re just starting or are looking to refine your practice, prioritizing form will pave the way for a journey filled with growth, strength, and balance.

plank pose in yoga practice

Common Mistakes and How to Correct Them

Every yoga pose, no matter how fundamental, comes with its set of common errors. Recognizing and rectifying these mistakes is crucial for a safe and effective practice.

When it comes to the plank pose, here are some frequent missteps and guidance on how to correct them:

Arching the lower back

  • Why It Happens: A lack of core engagement often leads to a sag in the lower back. This not only diminishes the benefits of the pose but can also strain the lumbar spine.
  • How to Correct: Actively engage the core muscles, envisioning your navel drawing towards your spine. Maintain a sense of lifting through the lower belly. Checking your form using a mirror or recording yourself can also offer visual feedback.

Dropping the hips

  • Why It Happens: Fatigue or a lack of strength, especially in the core and shoulders, can cause the hips to dip below the line of the body.
  • How to Correct: Focus on pushing the floor away with your hands and engaging the core. Imagine a straight line running from your head to your heels and maintain this alignment.

Overextending the neck

  • Why It Happens: A desire to look forward or towards the feet can lead to an awkward neck position, causing strain.
  • How to Correct: Maintain a neutral gaze, directed about six inches in front of your hands. This will keep the neck aligned with the spine.

Positioning your hands too far apart

  • Why It Happens: A wider hand position might feel more stable initially but can put unnecessary stress on the shoulders and wrists as well as reduce core engagement.
  • How to Correct: Ensure your hands are shoulder-width apart. Using a yoga mat with alignment lines or markings can be beneficial in achieving consistent hand placement.

Perfecting the plank requires both knowledge and introspection.

Being aware of common pitfalls and consciously working towards rectifying them will not only enhance the effectiveness of the pose but also ensure that you are cultivating a practice grounded in safety and awareness.

Remember, yoga is a journey: each practice brings you one step closer to alignment, both physically and mentally.

Benefits of Plank Pose in Yoga

The humble plank pose, Kumbhakasana, is deceptively simple in appearance.

Yet, as many discover upon attempting it, this pose has a wealth of holistic benefits that affect various facets of our well-being.

Here is how you can benefit from practicing plank pose regularly:

★ Core Strengthening

Muscles engaged

The plank primarily targets the core, activating a complex network of muscles.

These include the rectus abdominis (which aids in giving us the ever-coveted “six-pack” appearance), the obliques (responsible for side bending and waist-twisting), and the transverse abdominis (a deep core muscle that stabilizes the spine).

Posture and physique

By building strength in these muscles, plank pose fosters a toned abdomen, supports the spine, and promotes a better posture.

This not only enhances physical appearance but also helps in mitigating issues like back pain.

★ Enhances Balance and Stability

Improving proprioception

Proprioception refers to the body’s ability to sense its position in space. Plank pose, by challenging our balance, fine-tunes this skill.

As you maintain the pose, you’re training your body to be more aware and react swiftly to prevent falls, essential for daily tasks and other physical activities.

Strengthening shoulders, chest, and back

While the core remains the primary beneficiary, the plank equally engages the deltoids, pectorals, and rhomboids.

This comprehensive engagement ensures that the upper body is fortified, contributing to your overall stability.

★ Boosts Metabolism

Caloric burn

Isometric exercises like the plank, where one holds a static position, are instrumental in boosting metabolism.

When numerous muscle groups are engaged simultaneously, the body consumes more energy, leading to an increased rate of calorie burn even post-workout.

Muscle engagement and metabolic rate

Muscle tissue burns more calories than fat tissue.

As the plank builds and tones muscle, it can indirectly increase the basal metabolic rate, helping in weight management.

★ Supports Spinal Health

The importance of alignment

Proper alignment in the plank ensures that there’s an even distribution of pressure on the intervertebral discs. This can reduce the likelihood of spinal issues in the long run.

Reducing the risk of back pain

Since the plank fortifies the core without putting undue stress on the spine (when done correctly), it acts as a preventive measure against back ailments.

A robust core ensures that the spine is well-supported, minimizing the risk of injuries and strains.

★ Improves Flexibility and Mobility

Stretching posterior muscle groups

Contrary to popular belief, the plank doesn’t just make muscles rigid but also offers flexibility benefits.

The pose stretches muscles in the posterior chain, including the shoulders, calves, and even the arches of the feet.

Enhancing functional movement

A flexible body contributes to functional movement, ensuring that daily activities like bending, twisting, or even walking are performed with ease.

Including plank pose in your routine is not just about building a resilient core or a toned physique; it’s about crafting a stronger, more balanced version of yourself.

forearm plank

Variations of Plank Pose

The beauty of the plank pose lies in its versatility.

While the standard plank offers a myriad of benefits, its variations provide targeted engagement and allow you to challenge yourself even more.

Delving into these modifications can bring newfound enthusiasm and depth to your routine:

Side Plank

  • Benefits: This variation amplifies the engagement of the obliques and challenges the stability of the shoulder girdle. It also boosts balance and coordination.
  • Muscles Worked: Obliques, deltoids, and glutes.
  • How to Perform: Starting from a standard plank, pivot onto the outer edge of one foot, stacking the other foot on top. Simultaneously, lift the opposite arm skywards. Ensure the body is in a straight line and engage the obliques to avoid hip sag.

Forearm Plank

  • Benefits: It offers increased core engagement, reduces stress on the wrists, and intensifies the work on the shoulders.
  • Muscles Worked: Rectus abdominis, deltoids, and serratus anterior.
  • How to Perform: Instead of having your arms straight, rest on your forearms. Ensure your elbows are directly below your shoulders and maintain a straight line from head to heels.

Reverse Plank

  • Benefits: This challenges the posterior chain, particularly targeting the glutes, hamstrings, and lower back.
  • Muscles Worked: Glutes, hamstrings, erector spinae, and triceps.
  • How to Perform: Sit with your legs extended. Place your hands behind you, fingers pointing towards the feet. Press through the hands and lift your hips, aligning your body into a straight line from head to heels.

Three-Legged Plank

  • Benefits: Adds an element of balance, intensifies core engagement and strengthens the supporting leg.
  • Muscles Worked: Core muscles, glutes, and the stabilizers of the supporting leg.
  • How to Perform: From the standard plank, lift one leg off the ground, keeping it straight. Ensure your hips remain level to avoid twisting.

Knee Plank

  • Benefits: Suitable for beginners or those looking to reduce strain on the lower back. It helps in building foundational strength for the full plank.
  • Muscles Worked: Core muscles, particularly rectus abdominis.
  • How to Perform: From the plank position, simply drop your knees to the ground while maintaining a straight line from the head through the spine to the knees.

Experimenting with plank variations can bring new challenges to your practice. Each variation has its own set of benefits.

Whether you’re a novice or an experienced yogi, these variations offer the perfect opportunity to deepen your practice and explore your body’s potential.

Contraindications for Plank Pose

While the plank pose is a versatile and beneficial addition to many yoga practices, it’s essential to understand when it might be inappropriate or potentially harmful. Here are some contraindications to be aware of:

Wrist Issues

The plank pose exerts pressure on the wrists. If you have wrist pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, or other related conditions, consider modifications like the forearm plank or using props like yoga wedges to alleviate wrist strain.

Shoulder Injuries

Plank pose requires shoulder strength and stability. If you have a recent shoulder injury or chronic issues, it’s essential to proceed with caution.

Ensure proper alignment and consider shorter durations or avoid the pose altogether if pain persists.

Lower Back Pain

While a correctly executed plank can strengthen the back, if you have chronic lower back issues or recent injuries, it’s crucial to ensure that your form is impeccable.

Avoid letting the lower back sag, and if discomfort continues, consider skipping the pose.

Recent Abdominal Surgery

After any abdominal surgery or procedures, it’s vital to let the area heal fully and obtain clearance from a medical professional before engaging in exercises that stress the abdominal region, like the plank.


While some pregnant individuals can safely perform plank during the earlier stages of pregnancy, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare provider or prenatal yoga instructor.

Modifications, like knee plank, can be adopted, but always prioritize comfort and safety.

Always listen to your body. If you experience pain (beyond the discomfort of muscle engagement) during the pose, it’s a signal to reassess your form, try a modification, or skip the pose altogether.

Consultation with a yoga teacher or medical professional can provide further insights tailored to individual concerns.

Bottom line

Plank pose is a remarkably versatile and beneficial asana that offers a multitude of physical and mental advantages.

From strengthening the core muscles and improving posture to increasing overall body stability, plank pose has proven to be a fundamental component of any yoga practice or fitness routine.

Beyond the physical benefits, this pose also encourages mental fortitude, concentration, and mindfulness.

Do you practice plank pose in yoga? Let me know in the comments below!

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